Julian Schroeder’s laboratory is identifying mechanisms and pathways through which plants respond to abiotic stresses, including drought and salinity stress. A main focus is the signal transduction mechanisms that control stomatal movements and gas exchange/water loss of plants. The signal transduction mechanisms are being characterized through which stomatal guard cells respond to the phytohormone abscisic acid. His laboratory has further characterized mechanisms through which plants are responding to the continuing elevation in atmospheric CO2 by closing their stomatal pores. His laboratory also identified and characterized plant HKT transporters and identified how the HKT1 transporter protects Arabidopsis plants from salinity/sodium stress. His group with collaborators have also identified and characterized some of the key genes that mediate heavy metal and arsenic tolerance and accumulation in plants.